Anchor - a symbol of hope, an attribute of calm
How to choose an anchor for your boat
Why sailors who crossed the Atlantic tattoo themselves in the form of an anchor, which two famous ships did not have anchors, why does a yachtsman distinguish Danforth from a plow, and how to choose an anchor for his boat. Below is a short history of anchors from the origins of navigation to the present day.
Greeks, Scythians and the ends of the earth
Anchor - a rather conservative part of ship's life. Invented several thousand years ago, it is still indispensable on board. The first anchors were ordinary stones tied with rope. This simple and effective design is still successfully used today for small boats.
For several thousand years, humanity has enjoyed hardwood anchors... Sometimes with a stone attached to them, sometimes - bound by lead... A technological breakthrough occurred in the 7th century BC in the Mediterranean, when anchors began to be made completely made of metal and they took on a familiar look. We owe this improvement, as well as many other useful things, to the Greeks.
Stone and wooden anchors of past eras
About who exactly did the first two-horned iron anchor opinions differ. Some say it was the king Midas (the one who then asked the gods for the ability to turn everything he touched into gold - and died of hunger, because the food also became gold in his hands). Others favor the Greek Eulampia... And still others, for example, the famous historian and geographer Strabo, believe that the anchor made the Scythian Anacharsis - our fellow countryman who moved from the Black Sea region to Greece. But whoever it was, we can say with confidence: from that moment on, the anchors acquired a familiar shape and in the next millennia did not fundamentally change, only improved.
The structure of the admiralty anchor
Metal anchors were expensive and highly prized. The importance of the anchor is also evidenced by the fact that in Christianity it began to mean hope. This is probably where the tradition of tattooing anchors after crossing the Atlantic arose. It was the first ocean that Europeans crossed. And if now it is well researched, then it seemed to the participants of the first expeditions that they were not going to the New World, but straight to hell. Of course, in such a situation, one had to hope for something. The anchor, this "hope for the soul", has become a symbol of desperate sailors.
Even today, the transatlantic cannot be called a simple matter. Therefore, many sailors who made such a transition, according to tradition, stuff their anchors as a sign of distinction.
How to choose an anchor for your boat
Danforth or plow?
The core of the armature is a longitudinal bar - spindle... At the top, the spindle ends with a bracket for attaching to the anchor chain, at the bottom - with "horns" turning into pointed legs (or immediately into the legs, as on most modern yacht anchors). Horns and paws can be fixed to the spindle or on a hinge. Some anchors also have cross rod-rod, giving a position in which the paws cut better into the ground. A modern anchor strives not so much to hold the vessel in place by its unlifting weight, as to provide a stronger and faster hitch to the bottom. Hence the experimentally verified angles of the paws to the spindle, and the distribution of mass.
It is impossible to say which anchor for a yacht is “better in general”. Each has its own characteristics, disadvantages and preferred soils. However, there are several anchors that have proven themselves well and gained popularity among yachtsmen:
The first in this group of equals is the anchor invented in the middle of the twentieth century by an American engineer Danforth... Consists of a long spindle and movable flat legs, standing close to each other. The stem located at the bottom does not allow the anchor to roll over to its side when it touches the ground.
Danforth loves dense sand, on which it is able to hold up to 50 kilograms per 1 kilogram of its own weight. However, it can cling to pebble or rocky soils for a long time and hold unreliably. And on too soft sand, on the contrary, it often goes too deep - and adds problems when lifting. In addition, if the yacht is moored, the anchor end caught between the paws is able to pull the anchor out of the ground.
Anchors are varieties of Danforth Britanny, Guardian, Fortress and Lost Lost. The last two are worth noting. Non-loss has a sliding anchor chain shackle, and can be freed by maneuvering if it is strongly bogged down in the ground. A feature Fortress is that it is made of an aluminum alloy and its angle of deflection of the legs, adjustable up to 45 degrees, improves traction on different grounds.
The Fortress anchor is an aluminum variation of the popular Danforth
Lost anchor is easily recognizable by the shackle sliding on the spindle
Good fame and many supporters won for himself plow anchor (plow or plow), so named for its characteristic shape. Plows have a hinge connecting the paw and the spindle (CQR), or are fixed motionless (Delta).
CQR - one of the varieties of the plow anchor, which has an articulated connection of the spindle and paws
Earlier models of plows were sometimes reproached with small paws, which influenced the holding power. Therefore, the developers of the new generation of plows, such as Rocna or Mantus, moved towards increasing the mass of the point - it can be up to 60% of the total mass of the anchor. The results were not long in coming: Rocna quickly picks up soil and holds the yacht well. This type of anchor was loved by many skippers, despite the rather impressive size due to the large yoke - an arc that acts as a rod.
Rocna is a modern, more efficient version of the yoke plow
By the way, previously popular Bruce's anchor also belongs to the plow family. Its feature is a wide flat paw, good for picking up soft soils. But today an anchor of this type has been pushed aside by its more functional counterparts.
The easiest way to calculate the required mass of an anchor for a yacht - lay a kilogram of the anchor mass for each meter of the ship's length. This is the ultimate minimum, and the extra pounds in stock will only add peace of mind to the yacht owner at the berth. The anchor has the greatest holding force when the spindle lies on the ground. Therefore, skippers advise, depending on the type of soil and weather, to give 4-5 depths of the anchor chain - so that the spindle will probably fall to the bottom.
It is better to have two anchors on board - bow and stern. First worker. The second is more likely to be a safety one, its presence will save you from unnecessary worries while parking. But if you plan to break away from the coast for a long time, then the third one will not hurt either. The sea is full of surprises, and it is always good to have a spare wheel in the hold for every fireman.
Not advertised. Top manufacturers guide
As we said above, it is impossible to give one universal advice on which anchor to choose. But there are manufacturers who are trusted by yachtsmen around the world and whose products have been tested on hundreds of thousands of miles of crossings. Therefore, when choosing an anchor for your yacht, it makes sense to pay attention to them.
American company Fortress Marine Anchors produces its own versions Danforth... And it does it very successfully: the manufacturer's website contains a quote from the US Navy that “Fortress have much more holding power than any other anchor tested. " Models FX-37, FX-55, FX-85, and FX-125 certified as anchors with super-high holding capacity (Super High Holding Power)... The assessment was carried out by a reputable international certification company DNV GL, located in Norway. Fortress Marine Anchors gives a lifetime warranty for the anchors of the same name: in case of damage or bent, the manufacturer guarantees a free replacement of parts. You will only have to pay for the delivery and the actual replacement work. The company also produces another variety Danforth - Guardian... They are covered by a one-year warranty.
British Lewmar, in turn, specializes in "Plows"... The company's brands are famous Delta and CQR... The world's largest classification society Lloyd'scertified these anchors as having increased holding capacity (High Holding Power)... The manufacturer gives them a lifetime warranty against damage (but not against bending or deformation). Anchors are available in stainless steel or galvanized steel.
French Plastimo produces another variation of the plow - anchor Kobra, which also has excellent "coupling" performance. Cobra has no high-profile certificates, but its cost is significantly lower than that of anchors Fortress or Lewmar... European yachting publications have described the Cobra as an excellent combination of price and quality, noting its quick and strong grip on the ground, especially on muddy or sandy. The company also offers articulated anchors. SOC - French version of British CQR.
Plastimo Kobra anchor
Canadian Rocna known for its drag plows and their impressive holding characteristics. Designed by New Zealand skipper and yacht designer Peter Smith based on our own sea travels, Rocna has earned the recognition of many yachtsmen. The company also produces an anchor Vulcan - a curved version of the plow, the little brother Rocna... The manufacturer gives its anchors a lifetime warranty covering both breakage and bending / deformation.
Rocna is a modern, more efficient version of the yoke plow
Rocna Vulcan Anchor
American Mantus look like Rocna and plays with details rather than fundamental design differences. Company Mantus marine was founded in 2012, also the result of the personal experiences of a couple of yachtsmen who decided to create their ideal anchor. The manufacturer gives a lifetime warranty for the anchors against breakage and manufacturing defects. And he promises to return the money without question if the buyer discovers that the anchor does not work as advertised.
Consider next SPADE company Sea Tech & Fun... On yachts, you can tell it by the yellow top of the plow. This allows you to control its penetration into the ground through the water column. Made of galvanized steel, polished stainless steel and even aluminum. SPADE astounded journalists in many countries on tests and received incredible responses. And all thanks to the special concave shape of the plow, it is ready to burrow faster than its fellows. His spindle is removable, which will make it easy to find a place for him as a spare. Fits snugly on most bow rollers, presenting a rounded front surface.
The same company produces interesting SKREW ANCHOR, which is a screw-in stem. Basically, you can organize yourself a mooring eye on the beach. Especially relevant for lifting keel yacht owners such as Allures 40.9.
Retired industrial engineer John willis and founder Anchor Concepts, Inc... got confused by the creation of the perfect anchor in earnest. As a result, the most unusual anchor appeared. HydroBubble
The reason it works so well is because the buoyancy balloon forces the anchor to immediately orient itself upright when it is lowered into the water, and natural physics keeps the center of gravity so that HydroBubble always reaches the ground in a completely upright position. The most important aspect of all of this is that HydroBubble no need to react with the ground to help him become right. HydroBubble, the only one, uses natural factors associated with the unfolding of the anchor; These natural factors are water and gravity. All other anchors must deal with ground state variables to help set the anchor into position.
Anchors are also interesting SUPREME and THE BOSS New Zealand company MANSON... The main difference between these anchors is the longitudinal slit in the spindle, which allows you to change the vector when the anchor is raised. This helps to release the anchor caught in a "difficult situation" under a snag or rock.
Manson Supreme anchor
Anchor Manson Boss
And finally, an anchor, which is legendary from the not quite maritime country of the Czech Republic. Firm ULTRAMARIN ANCHORS manufactures high-tech anchors and accessories. The Czechs created an anchor that differs from all others in production. First, the spindle is made hollow, welded from two halves. This is for ease of use. At the same time, lead is poured into the plow nose. These two innovations, according to the designers, should force the anchor to land correctly, and be ready for burial. The anchor plow is made by forging, this allows the nose to be rounded and more actively to grip the soil. ULTRAMARIN Available in polished stainless steel only, this allows for better grip on soft dirt. Of course, such a complex production technology does not affect the price for the better.
|Name / Metal||Weight, kg||Price, EUR|
How to choose an anchor for your boat
Afterword: Two famous ships that did not have an anchor
Two famous ships that did not have anchors were Noah's Ark and the Flying Dutchman. The first did not need it because there was no need to get up to the parking lot - all the land was under water. And to the second - because he cannot stop until the second coming. It is then that the curse that the embittered captain has brought on the ship will cease to operate.
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